Penicillin


Penicillin
Penicillin, erstes Antibiotikum; 1923 von Alexander Fleming als gegen grampositive Eubakterien wirksames Peptid entdeckt. P. wird von Arten des Pinselschimmels Penicillium produziert; es konnte erst 1940 isoliert werden. Die Wirksamkeit der verschiedenen, in ihrer Struktur geringfügig unterschiedlichen P. beruht darauf, dass sie die Peptidglycansynthese in Bakterienzellwänden blockieren. Bakterien sind allerdings zunehmend resistent gegenüber P.

Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie. 2013.

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  • penicillin — pen i*cil lin, n. [From Penicillium, the fungus genus from which it was first isolated.] (Chem.) Any of a variety of substances having a structure containing a beta lactam ring fused to a thiirane ring, to which a carboxyl group is attached, most …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • penicillin G — penicillin pen i*cil lin, n. [From Penicillium, the fungus genus from which it was first isolated.] (Chem.) Any of a variety of substances having a structure containing a beta lactam ring fused to a thiirane ring, to which a carboxyl group is… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • penicillin G — jē n the penicillin C16H18N2O4S that constitutes the principal or sole component of most commercial preparations and is used chiefly in the form of its stable salts (as the sodium salt C16H17N2NaO4S or potassium salt C16H17KN2O4S) called also… …   Medical dictionary

  • penicillin V — vē n a crystalline nonhygroscopic acid that is used in the form of its potassium salt C16H17KN2O5S and has antibacterial action similar to penicillin G and is more resistant to inactivation by gastric acids called also phenoxymethyl penicillin *… …   Medical dictionary

  • Penicillin — Sn (ein Antibiotikum) erw. fach. (20. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus ne. penicillin, dieses aus l. Penicillium notatum, dem Namen eines Schimmelpilzes, aus l. pēnicillium Pinsel, Wundfäden, gezupfte Leinwand , einem Diminutivum zu l. pēniculus m.… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • penicillin O — ō n a penicillin C13H18N2O4S2 that is similar to penicillin G in antibiotic activity but that is obtained by growing the penicillia in a culture medium that contains a precursor …   Medical dictionary

  • penicillin F — ef n a penicillin C14H20N2O4S that was the first of the penicillins isolated in Great Britain …   Medical dictionary

  • Penicillin U — См. Пенициллин U (Источник: «Словарь терминов микробиологии») …   Словарь микробиологии

  • penicillin — penicillin. См. пенициллин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • penicillin — 1929, coined in English by Alexander Fleming (1881 1955), who first recognized its antibiotic properties, from Mod.L. Penicillium notatum (1867), the name of the mould from which it was first obtained, from L. penicillus paintbrush (see PENCIL… …   Etymology dictionary


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